Elevated levels of glucose (blood sugar) may indicate diabetes mellitus. Glucose levels should always be measured while fasting; you should have nothing to eat for a minimum of eight hours before the test. A physician should always follow up an abnormal fasting glucose.
Blood urea is the end product of protein metabolism. Elevated levels of blood urea are seen in persons with kidney disease. Slightly elevated levels may be seen in individuals on high protein diets.
Like blood urea, elevated levels of creatinine are seen in persons with kidney disease. Creatinine is a by-product of the breakdown of creatine in the muscles.
Sodium and Chloride
These elements are also known as electrolytes. Electrolyte levels are dependent on the intake of fluids and the output of waste products by the kidneys. Abnormal levels are seen in individuals with kidney disorders, hypertension (high blood pressure) and heart disease.
Low levels of calcium are usually associated with poor dietary intake. Calcium is essential for strong bones and teeth. Milk is a very good source of calcium.
High levels of uric acid can lead to gout, urinary stones, and kidney disease. Persons with elevated levels of uric acid should reduce their intake of high protein foods such as fish roe and organ meats; decreasing alcohol consumption also advisable.
Total Protein, Albumin, Globulin
Elevated levels of total protein are seen in dehydration, some cases of chronic liver disease including hepatitis, myleloma and instances of chronic infection and inflammation. Albumin and globulin are forms of protein and are part of the total protein..
High levels of total bilirubin are seen in individuals with liver disease and haemolytic anaemias. Individual with elevated levels of bilirubin usually have jaundice (yellowness of the skin and eyes).
Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme produced in bone and liver cells. Elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase are seen in individuals with liver or bone disorders and in rapidly growing children.
Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST)
AST is an enzyme present in many major organs such as the liver and heart, skeletal muscle and blood cells. Elevated levels are often seen in acute myocardial infarction (heart attack) and hepatitis.
Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT)
ALT is an enzyme present in the liver. Elevated levels indicate destruction of liver cells and are usually seen in disorders of the liver.
T4 is a hormone produced by the thyroid gland which regulates metabolic activity. Elevated levels of T4 usually indicate hyper (high) thyroidism; decrease levels usually indicate hypo (low) thyroidism.